Software failures can also cause serious consequences in an automobile. Toyota had to recall almost 2 million Prius hybrid vehicles, in order to fix a software glitch along with its engine control units (ECUs) in February 2014 (COMPUT- ERWORLD 2020). A malfunction within the car’s hybrid drive system caused by a software glitch could, in certain circumstances, cut the system’s power and cause the car to an unscheduled halt. A software glitch affecting the ECUs controlling the motor/generator and the hybrid system could put extra thermal stress on certain transistors under certain conditions. The same software issue recurred in July 2015, which has resulted in the recall of 625,000 Prius cars globally. Software failures have affected the healthcare system as well. Emergency services were unavailable for around six hours across seven U.S. states in April 2014 (COMPUTERWORLD 2020). The incident had a major impact on 81 call centers, meaning about 6,000 people who made 911 calls that were not able to connect in these seven states. There is a study announced by the Federal Communications Commission found that the cause of service unavailable was an entirely preventable software error.
The nonperformance and failures of software are expensive. A study carried by the National Institute of Standards & Technology in 2002 found that inadequate infrastructures for fixing software bugs cost the U.S economy $59.5 billion every year. What about the global cost of fixing software bugs every year? This study also estimated that more than a third of software bugs could be eliminated by improving software testing scheduling and methodology (Tassey 2002).